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To take part in the program you need to give us another user Ethereum address for us to invite him into the project. For every such user making a purchase, you will get additional 2. User must have at least one HMT on referrer account for the program to work. In both countries it is the cult of the tutelary spirits, the nats and the neak tas, that was the most official and organised, they reflect the organisation of society and at the same time they represent a part in their cultural identity. This cult of tutelary spirits helps the community to frame the limits of its identity, defines this cultural identity, consolidates it and also, gives force and assurance to men in the world where they live for the improvement of their welfare.
The practitioners of the cults are also the same more or less for both countries: there are witches, sorcerers, and persons who get possessed by a spirit in cases of healing, or in.
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The practitioners are those who know, naturally or by learning, the secrets of the occult sciences: they know how to propitiate the spirits and invoke their aid, and therefore, they know how to get more power with the assistance of supernatural forces. But could it be that the animists cults are a prolongation and enlargement of ancient Brahmanic and Saivite faiths? It shows that the Indochinese have still kept their spirit cults although the main religion has changed, but, either they assimilated their cults to the cultual system of another faith Theravada Budhhism , either they added another faith that was solving their spiritual problems, while they were keeping their practical, material and convenient spirit cults.
Nowadays, or more when the studies have stopped, animist cults are found still in Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, and Burma, but they are mixed to the Buddhism practiced, most often Theravada Buddhism, except for Vietnam the Cams, like the Malaysian converted also to Islam. However, everywhere the spirit cults remained parallelly to the other main religions, as the magical undercurrent of Indochinese people, as the superstitions of the people, as in a way in Christian societies, the superstitions are remains of a Pagan past.
The spirit cults and the beliefs related to them, confirm the Indochinese cultural identity, by setting down a cohesive, all englobing system of beliefs, their superstitious frame. This frame is the frame of the world they live in and they are similar because they reflect the same Indochinese conceptions of their environment, natural and supernatural. Forest, Y. Ishizawa and L. Vandermeersch, Cultes populaires et societes asiatiques, appareils cultuels et appareils de pouvoir,.
Les etres surnaturels dans la religion populaire khmere. The calling of the souls: a study of the Khmer ritual Hau Bralin. Monash University, Calyton, Victoria, Australia, Fetes Civiles et Religieuses. Folk Elements in Burmese Buddhism. Oxford University Press, London, Shwedagon, Golden Pagoda of Myanmar Benedicte Brac de La Perriere. Les rituels de possession en Birmanie. Editions Recherche sur les Civilisations, Paris, Cultural Report Series No. The Burman: his life and notions.
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London, Buddhism and the spirits cults in North-East Thailand. Cambridge University Press, Life and Rituals in Old Siam.
Croyances et pratiques religieuses des Vietnamiens. Commission des Moeurs et Coutumes du Cambodge. Institut Bouddhique, Phnom-Penh, Etudes sur les Rites Agraires. Moeurs et Coutumes des Khmers. Les Tchames et leurs religions. Ernest Leroux Editeur, Paris, Third year BA Study of Religion South East Asian Art I:.
Cities and the Human Figure. The Cult of the Thirty-Seven Nats. It consisted in the belief of spirits inhabiting all things, as trees and roots, or more inhabiting and controlling some place, a village, a house, … These spirits are to be known to human beings because if they are not satisfied, or are simply omitted, then they can bring sorrow and diseases, and all sorts of misdeeds.
To avoid their malign influence, one must propitiate them, make some offerings and manage to make the spirits become protective. The Burmese nats, however, are still nowadays much more present in pagodas and temples than in Cambodia: there are statues of very realistic and modern nats in the Shwedagone Pagoda for instead, with the protective spirit of the pagoda Bobo Gyi. This is due to the fact the cult of the Thirty-seven Nats has been incorporated into Buddhism and accepted by royal decree after Anawrahta made Buddhism the official religion. In the eleventh century Anawrahta was ruling over Burma from his throne in Pagan.
Although some legends make him the son of nats, he tried to eradicate the cult of the nats, but as the faith was too deeply rooted he had to accept them. Therefore he established an official list of thirty-seven nats with at the head Thagyamin, the Buddhist Lord Sakra Indra.
The support of nats was important to royal authority because if the power of these nats were not in the possession of the kings, then it could be a power that turns against the king and therefore must be fought. It is the same with the powers given by magic, witchcraft or alchemy: they must be eradicated or submitted to the king. Many legends reproduce stories where kings are animated by this will to ally these forces.
Alchemy has been practiced in Burma since the earliest times and was brought back from India. The alchemists as the ones found elsewhere, worked to turn lead into silver and brass into gold, and to create the Philosophical Stone and then to use its powers to have a superhuman body and eternal youth If an alchemist could produce the stone, he had to absorb it and then be buried for seven days, at the end of which he would be a fully accomplished alchemist, a zawgyi.
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During the seven days when he remains under the earth, an apprentice or someone else must protect him, because his meat flesh is very smelly and tasty and some demons or others in seek of power, want to devour him as his meat gives great powers. So many people want to eat dead alchemists, so tells the story of the two Indian brothers Byat ta and Byat wi, found by an old monk who raised them.
The monk had found the body of an alchemist. Unfortunately, the monk took a long time and the two brothers were too attracted by the appetizing smell of the roasted body of the dead alchemist: they ate first a little bite each but it was so good they ate it all. The meat gave them great powers with which they tried to bar the route of the old monk. When he returned with the king on the next morning it was too late, but the old monk told the king that they had to catch them back because their power was a threat to the royal power.
However, powers must go with the king in Burmese tales. Anawrahta who first tried to eradicate the cult, had to accept it. In many legends he kills some person who threatened his power and then makes them a nat to use its protective powers. It seems almost as if the cult that he initiates for the spirit of the people he killed, gives him the excuse for the act of killing, and the fact that a person who dies of a violent death becomes a nat, encourages the king to kill any person with a particular power, so that this power can be submitted to him, and his authority reinforced by this power.
This is reinforced in the case of the tradition of burying people alive under the city walls of a new founded city: the people buried become protective spirits of the city. In the legend of Byat ta and Byat wi, Byat wi is captured and his guts are buried under the hall to the throne room and his blood is spread upon the city walls. Some legends mention also the custom of cutting heads because the skull brought protection; there was even a head-cutting season during March and April.
Therefore it is quite hard to see the limits of the categorization as nat, whether it was a violent death that made the nat or the seek of the protective powers attributed to nats that induced some kings to kill powerful people in order to submit their power to his.
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The nats have powers other than military; they are held responsible for many of the variable elements that happen in their sphere, in their domain. If someone is sick, again it means he offended a household nat or one of his relative has offended a nat and the nat punishes in return the family. A nat has power and control on some limited spaces, the house, a village or some region. It is also believed the house nat is a remain of a cult of the tree that served to build this house: the tree is cut, in return the spirit inhabiting the tree has a house, a shrine, a nat-sin built in the house for him where the offerings are to be made to him.
That cult is perpetrated today with the coconut hung at the southeast pole of the house for Mahagiri, the Lord of the Great Mountain. Often some nats if they were not already designating an area by their nature or identity as for the spirit of the top of the tree, Akakasoh, of the forest, Hmin Nat, of the trunk, Shekkasoh, the roots, Boomasoh, the clouds, Oopakah, the rivers, streams , have some cities that are attached to them, gained or offered by some king, and they become the guardian spirit of that city or town:.